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Cognitive function in pediatric-onset relapsing MOGAD

Full Title: Cognitive function in pediatric-onset relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)


Fabri TL, O'Mahony J, Fadda G, Gur RE, Gur RC, Yeh EA, Banwell BL, Till C


Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders


Highlights

  • Cognitive outcomes of relapsing MOGAD, POMS, and controls were compared.

  • Relapsing MOGAD participants showed deficits in reasoning relative to HCs.

  • Relapsing MOGAD and POMS groups performed more slowly overall relative to HCs.

  • EF and overall PCNB score were significantly lower in POMS compared to relapsing MOGAD.

  • Cognitive deficits in relapsing MOGAD are milder relative to POMS.

Abstract

Introduction

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies are identified in approximately 30–50% of youth with pediatric-onset acquired demyelinating syndromes. Little is known about the cognitive sequelae of relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) with onset in childhood or adolescence.Overall, adults had 41% more risk than children to relapse over the whole disease course Overall, adults had 41% more risk than children to relapse over the whole disease course


Objective

To compare cognitive performance in participants with pediatric-onset relapsing MOGAD, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS), and age-matched healthy controls.


Methods

The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PCNB) was administered to 12 individuals with relapsing MOGAD (age = 16.3 ± 4.8 years; 75% female; disease duration = 8.1 ± 2.7 years), 68 individuals with POMS (age = 18.3 ± 4.0 years; 72% female; disease duration = 3.8 ± 3.9 years), and 108 healthy controls (age = 17.0 ± 4.9 years; 68.5% female). Accuracy was assessed on four domains: Executive Function, Episodic Memory, Complex Cognition, Social Cognition; and overall response time (RT) and RT across three factors (i.e., Time Constrained, Open-Window, Memory). Global performance was determined by a composite score. Multiple linear regression was used to examine group differences on PCNB domain and factor z-scores, controlling for age and sex. We also covaried disease duration for relapsing MOGAD vs. POMS analyses.


Results

Relative to healthy controls, relapsing MOGAD participants were less accurate on the Complex Cognition domain (B=-0.28, SE=0.11, p=.02), and had slower overall response time (B=-0.16, SE=0.07, p=.02). Relative to POMS, relapsing MOGAD participants were more accurate on the Executive Function domain (B = 0.70, SE=0.30, p=.02) and on the battery overall (B = 0.41, SE=0.18, p=.02). Relative to controls, overall PCNB score was significantly lower in the POMS group (B=-0.28, SE=0.06, p<.001) whereas the relapsing MOGAD participants did not differ from controls (p=.06) on the overall PCNB score.


Conclusions

The relapsing MOGAD group demonstrated reduced reasoning skills and slower overall response time, relative to controls. A broad pattern of deficits was observed among POMS participants relative to controls. Overall, cognitive difficulties in the MOGAD group were milder relative to the POMS group.


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